Results From the Uganda Self-Injection Best Practices Project
We used qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate the differing experiences of adolescents and adult women in the contraceptive self-injection program in primary care settings in Uganda. From these results, we assessed barriers to adolescent DMPA-SC self-injection access and continuation and provide recommendations to address them.
The Self-Injection Best Practices project (2017–2019) in four districts trained clinic-based providers and Village Health Teams to provide self-injection training in clinics, community settings, and small group meetings for adolescent girls and young women. More than 12,000 women of reproductive age received self-injection services through the program, including 2,215 under 20 years. Structured surveys (n = 1,060) and in-depth interviews (n = 36) were conducted with randomly selected adolescent participants between July and November 2018. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess quantitative differences in outcomes of interest between age groups.
The study found no significant difference in self-injection proficiency or continuation between adolescents and adult women; 92.6% of adolescents self-injected independently when due for reinjection. Adolescents were significantly less likely than adults to report first hearing about self-injection from a community health worker. More adolescents expressed concern over discovery when seeking contraception at a clinic and fear of their DMPA-SC units being discovered at home. Adolescents were significantly less likely than adult women to mention convenience as a rationale for self-injecting, and more likely to mention wanting to learn a new skill and/or that friends recommended self-injection.
Self-injection is a promising method of contraception for adolescents in Uganda, given comparable proficiency and continuation relative to adult women. Policies and programs should ensure rights-based access to a range of methods, including self-injection for this age group.