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Author: Jennifer Kidwell Drake


Contraceptive self-injection through routine service delivery: Experiences of Ugandan women in the public health system

Contraceptive self-injection (SI) is a new self-care practice with potential to transform women’s family planning access by putting a popular method, injectable contraception, directly into the hands of users. Research shows that SI is feasible and acceptable; evidence regarding how to design and implement SI programs under real-world conditions is still needed. This evaluation examined women’s experiences when self-injection of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) was introduced in Uganda alongside other contraceptive options in the context of informed choice. We conducted structured survey interviews with 958 randomly selected SI clients trained in three districts in 2019. SI clients demonstrated their injection technique on a model to permit an assessment of injection proficiency. A randomly selected subset of 200 were re-interviewed 10–17 months post-training to understand resupply experiences, waste disposal practices and continuation. Finally, we conducted survey interviews with a random sample of 200 clients who participated in training but declined to self-inject. Data were analyzed using Stata IC/14.2. Differences between groups were measured using chi square and t-tests. Multivariate analyses predicting injection proficiency and SI adoption employed mixed effects logistic regression. Nearly three quarters of SI clients (73%) were able to demonstrate injection proficiency without additional instruction from a provider. Years of education, having received a complete training, practicing, and taking home a job aid were associated with higher odds of proficiency. Self-reported satisfaction and continuation were high, with 93% reinjecting independently 3 months post-training. However, a substantial share of those trained opted not to self-inject. Being single, having a partner supportive of family planning use, training with a job aid, practicing, witnessing a demonstration and exposure to a full training were associated with higher odds of becoming an SI client; conversely, those trained in a group had reduced odds of becoming an SI client. The self-care program was successful for the majority of women who became self-injectors, enabling most women to demonstrate SI proficiency. Nearly all those who opted to self-inject reinjected independently, and the majority continued self-injecting for at least 1 year. Additional research should identify strategies to facilitate adoption by women who wish to self-inject but face challenges.

Institutional Author(s): PATH
Individual Author(s): Jane Cover, Allen Namagembe, Chloe Morozoff, Justine Tumusiime, Damalie Nsangi, Jennifer Kidwell Drake
Publication date: August, 2022

Continuation of self-injected versus provider-administered contraception in Senegal: a nonrandomized, prospective cohort study

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare the 12-month continuation rate for women who self-injected subcutaneous depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) with that for women receiving intramuscular depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM) from a provider. This research contributes to the broader goal of identifying solutions to support women to use contraception for their full desired duration.
Study design: Participants were clients from 13 clinics in the Dakar and Thiés regions of Senegal who had decided to use injectable contraception prior to enrollment. They chose self-injection of DMPA-SC or provider administration of DMPA-IM. Self-injectors were trained and given three units of DMPA-SC. The provider-injected group received DMPA-IM and returned to the clinics for future injections. We interviewed participants at baseline and after the second, third and fourth injections (the equivalent of 12 months of contraceptive coverage). We employed Kaplan–Meier methods to estimate continuation probabilities, with a log-rank test to compare differences between groups. A multivariate Cox regression identified factors correlated with discontinuation.
Results: The 12-month continuation rate for 650 women self-injecting DMPA-SC was 80.2%, while that for 649 women receiving DMPA-IM from a provider was 70.4% (p<.01). The difference in continuation between self-injectors and those receiving DMPA from a provider remained significant in a multivariate Cox regression model. The primary reason for discontinuation in both groups (44.7% self-injected; 44.5% provider-injected) was forgetting to reinject or reinjecting late. Fewer women reported side effects in the self-injection group than in the provider-administered group.
Conclusions: The higher 12-month continuation rate for women self-injecting DMPA-SC relative to provider-administered DMPA-IM suggests that self-injection may help prevent pregnancy more consistently and continuously.

Institutional Author(s): PATH, Ministère de la Santé et de l'Action Sociale Senegal
Individual Author(s): Jane Cover, Maymouna Ba, Jennifer Kidwell Drake, Marėme Dia NDiaye
Publication date: November, 2018

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Is contraceptive self-injection cost-effective compared to contraceptive injections from facility-based health workers? Evidence from Uganda

To assess the cost-effectiveness of self-injected subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) compared to health-worker-administered intramuscular DMPA (DMPA-IM) in Uganda. We developed a decision-tree model with a 12-month time horizon for a hypothetical cohort of approximately 1 million injectable contraceptive users in Uganda to estimate the incremental costs per pregnancy averted and per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The study design derived model inputs from DMPA-SC self-injection continuation and costing research studies and peer-reviewed literature. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from societal and health system perspectives and conducted one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of results.

Institutional Author(s): PATH
Individual Author(s): Laura Di Giorgio, Mercy Mvundura, Justine Tumusiime, Chloe Morozoff, Jane Cover, Jennifer Kidwell Drake
Publication date: August, 2018

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Costs of administering injectable contraceptives through health workers and self-injection: evidence from Burkina Faso, Uganda, and Senegal

To evaluate the 12-month total direct costs (medical and nonmedical) of delivering subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) under three strategies – facility-based administration, community-based administration and self-injection – compared to the costs of delivering intramuscular DMPA (DMPA-IM) via facility- and community-based administration. We conducted four cross-sectional microcosting studies in three countries from December 2015 to January 2017. We estimated direct medical costs (i.e., costs to health systems) using primary data collected from 95 health facilities on the resources used for injectable contraceptive service delivery. For self-injection, we included both costs of the actual research intervention and adjusted programmatic costs reflecting a lower-cost training aid. Direct nonmedical costs (i.e., client travel and time costs) came from client interviews conducted during injectable continuation studies. All costs were estimated for one couple year of protection. One-way sensitivity analyses identified the largest cost drivers.

Institutional Author(s): PATH, University of Washington
Individual Author(s): Laura Di Giorgio, Mercy Mvundura, Justine Tumusiime, Allen Namagembe, Amadou Ba, Danielle Belemsaga-Yugbare, Chloe Morozoff, Elizabeth Brouwer, Marguerite Ndour, Jennifer Kidwell Drake
Publication date: May, 2018

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Acceptability of Contraceptive Self-Injection with DMPA-SC Among Adolescents in Gulu District, Uganda

In Uganda, an estimated one in four adolescent women have begun childbearing. Many adolescent pregnancies are unintended because of substantial barriers to contraceptive access. The injectable contraceptive is the most commonly used method in Uganda, and a new subcutaneous version offers the possibility of reducing access barriers by offering a self-injection option. However, more information about adolescent attitudes toward and interest in self-injection is needed. In 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 46 adolescent women aged 15–19 from rural and urban areas of Gulu District. Respondents were asked about their demographic characteristics, experience with contraceptives and opinions about injectable contraception, then introduced to subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) and trained in how to give an injection using a model. They were then asked their opinion about contraceptive self-injection. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively to identify key themes. Although the injectable was generally viewed favorably, some adolescents expressed reservations about the suitability of injectable contraception for adolescents. The most common concern was fear of infertility. The majority felt self-injection would be an appealing option to adolescents because of the time and money saved and the discreet nature of injecting at home. Barriers to self-injection included fear of needles, the potential of making a mistake and lack of privacy at home. Contraceptive self-injection has the potential to increase contraceptive access and use for adolescents in Uganda, and should be considered as a delivery modality in the context of adolescent-friendly contraceptive services.

Institutional Author(s): PATH
Individual Author(s): Jane Cover, Jeanette Lim, Allen Namagembe, Justine Tumusiime, Jennifer Kidwell Drake, Carie Muntifering Cox
Publication date: December, 2017

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Evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of self-injection of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in Senegal: a prospective cohort study

Expanding contraceptive options through self-injection may improve access and confidentiality. There are few published studies on contraceptive self-injection in sub-Saharan Africa and none in West Africa, a region with high unmet need. This study was performed to assess feasibility of subcutaneous DMPA self-injection in Senegal; objectives were to (1) measure the proportion of participants who self-injected competently 3 months after training, (2) measure the proportion who self-injected on time (defined conservatively as within 7 days of reinjection date), and (3) assess acceptability of self-injection. In this prospective cohort study, 378 women aged 18–49 years were trained to self-inject by study nurses. Three months later, women returned unprompted to the clinic to self-inject, and technique and visit timing were evaluated. Women continuing with a third self-injection were followed up at home after their next scheduled injection date. At each interaction, participants were interviewed to learn about their experience; additional questions during the final home visit focused on storage and disposal practices, and acceptability

Institutional Author(s): PATH, Senegal Ministry of Health and Social Action
Individual Author(s): Jane Cover, Maymouna Ba, Jeanette Lim, Jennifer Kidwell Drake, Bocar Mamadou Daff
Publication date: June, 2017

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A prospective cohort study of the feasibility and acceptability of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate administered subcutaneously through self-injection

Evidence on contraceptive self-injection from the United States and similar settings is promising, and the practice may increase access. There are no published studies on the feasibility of contraceptive self-injection in sub-Saharan Africa to date. The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate self-injection in Uganda, with specific objectives to (a) measure the proportion of participants who self-injected competently, (b) measure the proportion who self-injected on time 3 months after training (defined conservatively as within 7 days of their reinjection date) and (c) assess acceptability. In this prospective cohort study, 380 18–45-year-old participants completed self-injection training by licensed study nurses, guided by a client instruction booklet, and practiced injection on prosthetics until achieving competence. Nurses supervised participants’ self-injection and evaluated injection technique using an observation checklist. Those judged competent were given a Sayana® Press unit, instruction booklet and reinjection calendar for self-injection at home 3 months later. Participants completed an interview before and after self-injection. Nurses visited participants at home following reinjection dates; during the follow-up visit, participants demonstrated self-injection on a prosthetic, injection technique was reevaluated, and a post reinjection interview was completed.

Institutional Author(s): PATH, Uganda Ministry of Health
Individual Author(s): Jane Cover, Allen Namagembe, Justine Tumusiime, Jeanette Lim, Jennifer Kidwell Drake, Anthony K Mbonye
Publication date: October, 2016

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