Skip to main content

Author: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health


Performance Monitoring for Action (PMA): Family Planning

PMA generates frequent, high-quality surveys monitoring key health indicators in nine countries in Africa and Asia. Data is available open-source for research, program planning, and policy-making. PMA family planning briefs provide a snapshot of select indicators through charts, graphs and tables. Key indicators for family planning include unmet need for family planning, modern contraceptive prevalence rate (​mCPR), and family planning access, equity, quality, and choice.

Institutional Author(s): Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Publication date: 2021

Tool Web page

Self-administration of injectable contraception: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Introduction: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate subcutaneous injectable contraception (DMPA-SC) may facilitate self-administration and expand contraceptive access. To inform WHO guidelines on self-care interventions, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing self-administration versus provider administration of injectable contraception on outcomes of pregnancy, side effects/adverse events, contraceptive uptake, contraceptive continuation, self-efficacy/empowerment and social harms.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, LILACS and EMBASE in September 2018 for peer-reviewed studies comparing women who received injectable contraception with the option of self-administration with women who received provider-administered injectable contraception on at least one outcome of interest. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and the Evidence Project tool for non-randomised studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models to generate pooled estimates of relative risk (RR).

Results: Six studies with 3851 total participants met the inclusion criteria: three RCTs and three controlled cohort studies. All studies examined self-injection of DMPA-SC; comparison groups were either provider-administered DMPA-SC or provider-administered intramuscular DMPA. All studies followed women through 12 months of contraceptive coverage and measured (dis)continuation of injectable contraception. Meta-analysis found higher rates of continuation with self-administration compared with provider administration in three RCTs (RR: 1.27, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.39) and three controlled cohort studies (RR: 1.18, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.26). Four studies reported pregnancies; all showed no difference across study arms. Four studies reported side effects/adverse events; while two controlled cohort studies showed increased injection site reactions with self-administration, no other side effects increased with self-administration. One study found no difference in social harms. No studies reported measuring uptake or self-efficacy/empowerment.

Conclusion: A growing evidence base suggests that self-administration of DMPA-SC can equal or improve contraceptive continuation rates compared with provider administration. This benefit comes without notable increases in pregnancy or safety concerns. Self-injection of DMPA-SC is a promising approach to increasing contraceptive use.

Institutional Author(s): Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, World Health Organization (WHO), PATH
Individual Author(s): Caitlin E Kennedy, Ping Teresa Yeh, Mary Lyn Gaffield, Martha Brady, Manjulaa Narasimhan
Publication date: April, 2019

Journal Article Link to Journal Article