The subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) injectable contraceptive was introduced in South West Nigeria in 2015 through private sector channels. The introduction included community-based distribution and was supported by a social marketing approach. From program monitoring and evaluation, aimed at understanding performance, market reach and other process measures, we identify lessons learned to inform future scale-up efforts. We synthesized the findings from a core set of key performance indicators collected through different methods: (1) implementer performance indicators, (2) phone survey of DMPA-SC users (n=541) with a follow-up after 3 months (n=342) and (3) in-depth interviews with 57 providers and 42 users of DMPA-SC
In 2015, private healthcare providers in Nigeria introduced DMPA-SC (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate administered subcutaneously) into the method mix. We aimed to  examine the sociodemographic predictors of continued DMPA-SC use after 3 months, and  characterize the additional influences of contraceptive counseling quality and experiences of side effects on continuation. From March to August, 2016, we conducted phone interviews with a convenience sample of women obtaining DMPA-SC from selected providers to survey them about their experience obtaining an initial dose of DMPA-SC. Study coordinators contacted women again about 3 months later after when they were due for reinjection. We used logistic regressions to examine the likelihood of having obtained a subsequent dose of DMPA-SC at follow-up as predicted by sociodemographic characteristics, a quality of counseling indicator based on responses to a 14-item scale, and reports of side effects experienced.
Understanding whether hormonal contraception increases women’s risk of HIV acquisition is a public health priority. This review summarizes recent epidemiologic and biologic data, and considers the implications of new evidence on research and programmatic efforts. Two secondary analyses of HIV prevention trials demonstrated increased HIV risk among depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users compared with nonhormonal/no method users and norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) users. A study of women in serodiscordant partnerships found no significant association for DMPA or implants. Two meta-analyses found elevated risks of HIV among DMPA users compared with nonhormonal/no method users, with no association for NET-EN or combined oral contraceptive pills. In-vitro and animal model studies identified plausible biological mechanisms by which progestin exposure could increase risk of HIV, depending on the type and dose of progestin, but such mechanisms have not been definitively observed in humans. Recent epidemiologic and biologic evidence on hormonal contraception and HIV suggests a harmful profile for DMPA but not combined oral contraceptives. In limited data, NET-EN appears safer than DMPA. More research is needed on other progestin-based methods, especially implants and Sayana Press. Future priorities include updating modeling studies with new pooled estimates, continued basic science to understand biological mechanisms, expanding contraceptive choice, and identifying effective ways to promote dual method use.